Securing and Submitting Professional References

A closeup of a professional references list.When applying for a position online, you may be asked to attach a file containing the names and contact information for professional references as a required part of your application submission.  Even when a computerized online application form is not used, many job postings will specifically indicate a list of professional references must be submitted along with your cover letter and resume.  Finally, should you be fortunate enough to find yourself in an interview but have not yet asked for references, the topic may come up at that point, especially if you are being seriously considered for the position.  So, what it the proper way to handle requests for professional references?

First, let’s look at why are applicants asked for professional references and who should these individuals should be.  Remember, to an interviewer, you are an unknown and unproven entity, and therefore there is always the very real risk of inadvertently making a bad hiring decision; contacting professional references is one way interviewers feel they can help minimize that risk.  After all, a professional reference is – or should be – an individual who can attest to your experience, skills, and integrity.  The ideal reference is someone who has seen you on the job, can speak to your work quality, and report on how well you performed in a similar position or setting.  If the interviewer is able to actually communicate with a number of people who are able to confirm the employment history detailed on your resume, and these folks are willing to stick their necks out and vouch for you, he or she will feel that due diligence has been done in vetting you as a potential new employee.  Yes, interviewers are fully aware you will most likely provide the names of people who will (or should) say only good things about you, but more about that later.

Let’s take a look at some suggestions to help ensure your list of professional references is helpful rather than harmful to your job search.

Make sure the professional reference has agreed in advance to speak to potential employers about you, and that they have your permission to do so.

First and foremost, NEVER list someone as a professional reference unless you have personally contacted them and obtained their approval to do so.  Nothing reflects your lack of professionalism like having an interviewer call a reference who says, “Oh, um, I didn’t know Mary listed me as a reference.”  This places your reference in an uncomfortable and awkward situation, forcing them to decide on-the-spot whether or not to talk to the unfamiliar caller, and if so, how much to say.  In today’s litigious, sue-me-sue-you environment, people are understandably hesitant to say almost anything to an unexpected and unknown caller seeking employment information, especially if asked probing questions about your personality, abilities, skills, etc.  Additionally, many companies strictly prohibit individual employees or managers from giving out references or any employment information whatsoever and dictate that all such requests be immediately directed to Human Resources.  I’m sure you would not want to put your professional reference in a situation where, in an effort to help you, they inadvertently violate policies which could result in their own termination or discipline! Finally, if your reference gets a surprise call and then sounds hesitant or unwilling to provide any information, the caller/interviewer might understandably read such resistance as an indication there is something negative about you being withheld or hidden.

Depending on the culture and environment at your current job, as well as your relationship with your immediate supervisor, you want to make sure a contact within your company is not caught off guard by unexpectedly learning you are seeking employment elsewhere should a reference check occur. As you might expect, some supervisors are supportive and want to see you succeed in your career even if that means you working elsewhere, whereas others can be vindictive or retaliatory.  In extreme cases, I have heard of individuals being let go just because it was learned they were seeking employment elsewhere.  If your organization or supervisor leans toward the latter types, you may want to either use only a very trusted person at your firm as a reference, one who knows the delicacy of the situation, or a trusted individual outside your company.

The professional reference should be qualified to speak about you.

Obviously, anyone listed as a professional reference should have first-hand knowledge of your experience, skills, work ethic, etc.  This might be a current or former supervisor, an executive in your company, colleague in another department or from another firm, or even a vendor.  While your next-door neighbor since childhood or Great Aunt Matilda may be willing to attest to the fact you’re a good and kind person, they are probably not qualified to speak in detail regarding to your professional skills and abilities, and they are obviously biased towards you.  Also, peer coworkers with the same job title as yourself, performing the exact same work, are generally not considered strong references; the interviewer is apt to think of these individuals as being your friends rather than professionals who can speak objectively about you.

What about recent college graduates or others without significant work experience?  Teachers and professors who know you well and with whom you have worked are logical choices, or perhaps individuals with whom you have worked in a volunteer capacity on a project, maybe through a community organization or church.  Your involvement with such groups may have not been for pay, but these individuals have seen you in action, can speak to how hard you work and your dependability, and may be able to describe skills you demonstrated which are transferable to the workplace.

Know what the professional reference is going to say.

This may sound like a no-brainer, but you would be shocked at what people who are listed as references will sometimes say.  For example, I recall once contacting a candidate’s reference who proceeded to describe how the applicant was a pretty good employee, except for having been involved in numerous fist-fights while on the job.  Also, it doesn’t say much for you if the reference cannot even recall who the heck you are or seems to know very little about your actual job performance.

Another important and critical point is being sure whatever the reference will say agrees with what you have shown on your resume and application.  If you state you worked in a position for five years and your reference says three years, that is going to be a problem.  Similarly, if there is a discrepancy regarding the description of the job duties you performed or the actual level of the position you held, this will also be a red flag for the interviewer.  Even innocent disagreement between your version of the facts and that stated by a reference can look suspicious and therefore cause you to lose the position.

Make sure the contact information for your references is accurate and up-to-date.

From experience, I know the frustrations associated with sending out reference check request emails which result in “undeliverable email address” error messages, or calling telephone numbers which have long since been disconnected, or if the call is answered, learning that the specific reference person has retired or is no longer employed with the company.  If you cannot even provide accurate information when trying to secure an important job, what does that tell me about your attention to detail and quality?  The easier you make it for the interviewer to obtain the necessary reference checks, the better it makes you look.  Additionally, it may be possible more than one candidate is being considered for the job you seek; don’t let your competition win out simply because no one can reach your references, making you look like the inferior applicant.

When do I provide the list of professional references?

Maintain your list a professional references as a separate document, keep it updated, and provide it only when requested.  My recommendation is to indicate “Professional references available upon request” at the end of your resume but do not actually place the references themselves on the resume.  Do not routinely send the list of references along with cover letters, resumes, and applications unless the job posting or online application system instructs you to do so.  Also, be sure to take several copies of your professional reference list along with you to the job interview.  Should the interviewers be sufficiently impressed with you to want to check references right away, having your list immediately available to hand to them both speeds up the process and makes you look even better.

If the situation with your current employer makes reference checking a delicate matter, it may be necessary to indicate to the potential employer that such a sensitive situation exists and while you have no problem with them obtaining a reference from your current organization, you would prefer they delay doing so until such time you become a finalist for the job.   This must be done very carefully and professionally, and under no circumstances should you ever rant or bad-mouth your current employer; just politely indicate that a casual reference check could have negative repercussions for you, so you are merely requesting that any such contact with your organization be delayed unless a job offer might result.  Most experienced interviewers are aware that such situations frequently exist and will likely understand and honor your request without hesitation.

How to format the professional reference list.

There are no hard and fast rules for formatting a professional reference list, and many different acceptable examples may be found online, but the common elements are that it should contain the necessary information, have a logical and organized appearance, and be brief.  If the interviewer or job posting asks for a certain number of references, provide that number.  When a specific number of references is not indicated, providing three to five is usually acceptable, depending on the position sought and your experience.  When seeking a higher-level position or if your experience is extensive, you may wish to include one or two additional references, but don’t overdo it.  List your strongest or best references first, as the interviewer may end up only contacting one or two of the multiple people you identify.

Go for quality of references, not quantity.  In cases where it would be applicable and appropriate to do so, consider using a variety of professionals from different disciplines; for example, someone applying for a position in a hospital setting may wish to have a mix which includes their supervisor, a physician, a nurse, and a hospital administrator, rather than four individuals who all hold the exact same position.

Do not write a detailed or lengthy narrative for each name listed; include extra information only if it is needed to clarify something.  I also suggest including prefixes such as “Mr.,” “Ms.,” or other clues to indicate the gender of individual being contacted, especially for names which are common to either sex, or those which are unusual or foreign; this can help avoid potential embarrassment for the interviewer or caller.  Again, make the job of checking references easy and painless for the interviewer.

A stand-alone list of professional references might be formatted as shown below; notice how additional comments were included where helpful and applicable.

A sample list of professional references.

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